The project is laid out into two blocks comprised of 124 plots of 4 hectares. Each plot was planted with a single tree species (monocultures), 4 tree species or 16 tree species. This design allows comparisons of tree biomass production, diversity and fauna recovery and nutrient cycling among the three diversity levels to test whether increasing planting diversity positively affects ecosystem functions. The standard restoration practices of Southeast Asian dipterocarp forest typically plant single species; therefore, this design also allows assessments of current practices with modern science-based approaches. However, the initial experiment has grown to include numerous secondary projects. Currently in Malua, field scientists are exploring questions related to biodiversity and conservation of logged forests, forest responses to climate change and forest restoration practices to improve tree and seedling growth and survival.